Are callous unemotional traits all in the eyes? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52 3 Moral judgment and psychopathy. Emotion Review, 3 3
Types[ edit ] Juvenile delinquency, or offending, is often separated into three categories: There may also be biological factors, such as high levels of serotoningiving them a difficult temper and poor self-regulation, and a lower resting heart rate, which may lead to fearlessness.
Delinquent activity, particularly the involvement in youth gangs, may also be caused by a desire for protection against violence or financial hardship, as the offenders view delinquent activity as a means of surrounding themselves with resources to protect against these threats.
Most of these influences tend to be caused by a mix of both genetic and environmental factors. This may increase the chances of offending because low educational attainment, a low attachment to school, and low educational aspirations are all risk factors for offending in themselves.
These factors may lead to the child having low IQ and may increase the rate of illiteracy. Children who are often in conflict with their parents may be less willing to discuss their activities with them.
Although children are rejected by peers for many reasons, it is often the case that they are rejected due to violent or aggressive behavior. This rejections affects the child's ability to be socialized properly, which can reduce their aggressive tendencies, and often leads them to gravitate towards anti-social peer groups.
This often leads to an impulsive and aggressive reaction. Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior.
For classicists, offenders are motivated by rational self-interestand the importance of free will and personal responsibility is emphasized. Delinquency is one of the major factors motivated by rational choice.
Social disorganization[ edit ] Current positivist approaches generally focus on the culture. A type of criminological theory attributing variation in crime and delinquency over time and among territories to the absence or breakdown of communal institutions e.
Strain[ edit ] Strain theory is associated mainly with the work of Robert Merton.
He felt that there are institutionalized paths to success in society. Strain theory holds that crime is caused by the difficulty those in poverty have in achieving socially valued goals by legitimate means. Merton believed that drug users are in this category.
A difficulty with strain theory is that it does not explore why children of low-income families would have poor educational attainment in the first place. More importantly is the fact that much youth crime does not have an economic motivation.
Strain theory fails to explain violent crimethe type of youth crime that causes most anxiety to the public. Differential association[ edit ] The theory of Differential association also deals with young people in a group context, and looks at how peer pressure and the existence of gangs could lead them into crime.
It suggests young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers, and learn criminal skills from them. The diminished influence of peers after men marry has also been cited as a factor in desisting from offending.
There is strong evidence that young people with criminal friends are more likely to commit crimes themselves. However it may be the case that offenders prefer to associate with one another, rather than delinquent peers causing someone to start offending.
Furthermore there is the question of how the delinquent peer group became delinquent initially. Labeling[ edit ] Labeling theory is a concept within Criminology that aims to explain deviant behavior from the social context rather than looking at the individual themselves.
It is part of Interactionism criminology that states that once young people have been labeled as criminal they are more likely to offend.
The four types of control can help prevent juvenile delinquency are: Control through needs satisfaction, i. Around six to sixteen percent of male teens and two to nine percent of female teens have a conduct disorder. These can vary from oppositional-defiant disorderwhich is not necessarily aggressive, to antisocial personality disorderoften diagnosed among psychopaths.Map of North America highlighting the shallow inland seaways present during the mid-Cretaceous period.
By William A. Cobban and Kevin C. McKinney, United States Geological Survey. Moved Permanently. The document has moved here. Juvenile Delinquency Current Issues, Best Practices, and Promising Approaches.
By Florencio (Larry) Ramirez. According to the edition of Current Population Reports published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, there are now more than 70 million children under age 18 in the United States, which is more than 25 percent of the U.S.
. In , the term juvenile delinquency was first publicly utilized by a New York City committee when it was referenced as major cause of . Professor Kevin N. Wright, in his review of the literature for the Department of Justice, lists 21 other major studies that clearly show the link between parental conflict and delinquency.
Delinquency is one of the major factors motivated by rational choice. Juvenile delinquency in the United States; Kazan phenomenon; Michael W. Arthur, & N. Dickon Reppucci, "Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency: A Review of the Research", The Prevention Researcher, Volume 4, Number 2, , Pages